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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th
11th (Thebes only)
Middle Kingdom
11th (All Egypt)
12th 13th 14th
Second Intermediate Period
15th 16th 17th
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Graeco-Roman Period
Alexander the Great
Ptolemaic Dynasty


The Twenty-fifth Dynasty originated in Kush at the city-state of Napata, whence they invaded and took control of Egypt under Piye (spelled Piankhi in older works). Manetho does not mention either the first king Piye, or the last king Tantamani, although inscriptions exist to attest to the existence of both. This dynasty is often considered part of the Third Intermediate Period.

The following chronology follows recent research by Dan'el Kahn[1] which argues that Shebitku was king of Egypt by 707/706 BC. This is based on evidence from an inscription of the Assyrian king Sargon II, which was found in modern day Northwestern Iran and dated to 706 BC. This inscription calls Shebitku the king of Melunha, and states that he sent back to Assyria a rebel named Iamanni in handcuffs. Kahn's arguments have been widely accepted by many Egyptologists including Rolf Krauss, and Aidan Dodson[2] among others at the SCIEM 2000 (Synchronisation of Civilisations of the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C.) project with the notable exception of Kenneth Kitchen and Manfred Bietak at present.

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty
Name Dates
Kashta
Piye c. 752 BCE – 721 BCE
Shabaka 721 BCE – 707 BCE
Shebitku 707 BCE – 690 BCE
Taharqa 690 BCE – 664 BCE
Tantamani 664 BCE – 656 BCE (died 653 BCE)

Starting from the reign of Taharqa onwards, the kings of this dynasty were driven back into Nubia, at first by the Assyrians, then by the kings of the 26th Dynasty. Their successors came to settle in Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656 BCE - 590 BCE) then later at Meroë (590 BC - 4th century AD).

Notes

  1. "The Inscription of Sargon II at Tang-i Var and the Chronology of Dynasty 25," Orientalia 70 (2001), pp.1-18
  2. Journal of Egyptian Archeology 82(2002), p.182 n.24

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