FANDOM


Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Period
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th
11th (Thebes only)
Middle Kingdom
11th (All Egypt)
12th 13th 14th
Second Intermediate Period
15th 16th 17th
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Graeco-Roman Period
Alexander the Great
Ptolemaic Dynasty


Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties.

The Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh (Thebes only) Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, First Intermediate Period.

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties are a little-known line of kings (pharaohs) during a confusing time in the history of Egypt.

Kings

Seventh Dynasty[1]
Nomen Prenomen Comments
- Netjerkare? This quite possibly is Nitocris, and if so would belong in the sixth dynasty.
- Menkare -
- Neferkara I -
Nebi Neferkara -
- Djedkara Shemai -
- Neferkara Khendu -
- Merenhor -
Seneferka Neferkamin -
- Nikara -
- Neferkara Tereru -
- Neferkahor -
Eighth Dynasty[1]
Nomen Prenomen Comments
- Neferkara Pepyseneb -
- Neferkamin Anu Turin Canon gives rule of two years, one month, one day
Iby Qakare Ibi Turin Canon gives rule of four years, two months
- Neferkara II Turin Canon gives rule of two years, one month, one day
Khuwihap Neferkawhor -
- Neferirkara -

Sources

Manetho

The three sources which provide our knowledge on this period is exceedingly difficult to work with. Manetho's full history does not survive intact, but is known through other writers who quoted from it. Unfortunately, the two ancient historians who quote from this section, Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius of Caesarea, provide inconsistent accounts of both dynasties. Africanus claims that the Seventh dynasty consisted of 70 kings that ruled during a period of seventy days in Memphis, and the Eighth consisted of 27 kings who reigned for 146 years. However, Eusebius records that during the Seventh Dynasty five kings ruled over seventy five days, and the Eighth includes five kings who ruled for 100 years. Seventy kings in seventy days is usually considered the correct version of Manetho, but obviously not the actual correct dates. This epithet is interpreted to mean that the pharaohs of this period were extremely ephemeral, and the use of seventy may be a pun on fact that this was Manetho's seventh dynasty.[2] The fact that Manetho does not provide actual historical data on this period is interpreted by many as meaning that the seventh dynasty is fictitious.

The Turin Canon of Kings and Abydos King List

Two Egyptian documents record the names of the kings of Egypt, however they do not divide them into dynasties. Kings 42 to 56 on the Abydos King List come between the end of the sixth dynasty and the beginning of the eleventh, and do not appear to be from the ninth or tenth dynasties either.[3] The Turin Canon is heavily damaged, and cannot be read without much difficulty. However, the fragment containing what is believed to be the name of Nitocris has two mangled names and a third name on it which is clearly that of Qakare Ibi, the 53rd king on the Abydos king list. There seems to be left room for two more kings before the end of the dynasty.[4] This would indicate that the the missing parts of the Turin Papyrus probably contained the kings in the 51st to 55th registers of the Abydos King list. Because the Turin papyrus omits the first nine kings on the Abydos list, W.C. Hayes thinks it reasonable that the Egyptians may have divided the seventh and eighth dynasties at this point.[5][6]

Decline into Chaos

Given that five names of the kings from this period have Pepi II's throne name Neferkare in their own names, they may have been descendants of the sixth dynasty who were trying to hold on to some sort of power.[7] Some of the acts of the final four eighth dynasty kings are recorded in their decrees to Shemay, a vizier during this period, however only Qakare Ibi can connected to any monumental construction. His pyramid has been found at Saqarra near Pepi II and continues to have the pyramid texts written on the walls.[8]

However many kings there actually were, it is clear that during this time period a breakdown of the central authority of Egypt was underway. The rulers of these dynasties were based in Memphis; with the exception of the final eighth dynasty kings, all that is known of most of these rulers is their names. This group of kings was eventually overthrown by a rival group, the Ninth Dynasty, based in Herakleopolis Magna.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Division between dynasties is on the assumption that the omission of nine kings in the Turin Canon seperates the two dynasties.
  2. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.138. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  3. Abydos King List, Accessed November 9, 2006
  4. Smith, W. Stevenson. The Old Kingdom in Egypt and the Beginning of the First Intermediate Period, in The Cambridge Ancient History," vol. I, part 2, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p.197. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1971
  5. Smith, W. Stevenson. The Old Kingdom in Egypt and the Beginning of the First Intermediate Period, in The Cambridge Ancient History," vol. I, part 2, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p.197. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1971
  6. Piccione's King Lists
  7. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.140. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  8. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.140. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.