|Family|| Hor-Aha (father?)|
|Burial Place||Tomb O|
For more images see: Djer Image Gallery.
His family is quite well documented. He is known to have had at least two wives; Herneith and Nakhtneith. Herneith is thought to have been his wife due to her name being located on his sepulchre, with Nakhtneith mentioned on stele 95 from his funerary complex. Kenthap is attested on the Cairo Annal Stone as his mother. There are some that believe he could have been the father of Merneith due to artefacts linking her to Djer, Djet and Den.
During his reign military exploits are mentioned, occurring in the area of Wadi Halfa. Rock carvings here show the king's name in a serekh next to a schematic showing enemies being thrown into water in front of an Egyptian Warship. Trips are also mentioned on Year Labels to the city of Buto as well as to Sais found at Abydos.
There is another Year Label from Saqqara dating to his reign which also shows the ritual of Human Sacrifice which would make sense considering the amount of satellite burials placed in his funerary complex .
His tomb (Tomb O) is most noticeable as it is the largest 1st Dynasty tomb at the necropolis of Umm el-Qa'ab measuring 12x13 metres in size . The tomb consists of one large chamber, breaking from previous traditions of having several small chambers. Traces showed a wooden coffin had been placed against the back wall of tomb. The complex was covered by timber ceiling, above which a low tumulus of sand was piled up within brick walls. . Inside the mastaba was found an ivory lid with the name of Neithhotep A, however this tomb is close to Hor-Aha's meaning this piece could have strayed from his tomb. In addition a mummified arm which held four gold bracelets, which was thought to have been a woman by Flinders Petrie which is likely as the skull of a female was also discovered. When the arm was discovered inside the tomb Petrie wrote:
...the arm of the Queen of Djer was found, hidden in a hole in the wall, with the gold bracelets in place. The lads who found it saw the gold, but left it untouched and brought the arm to me. I cut the wrappings apart so bared he bracelets all intact. Thus the exact order could be copied when my wife re-threaded them next morning. When Quibell came over on behalf of the Museum, I sent up the bracelets by him. The arm - the oldest mummified piece known - and its marvelously fine tissue of linen were also delivered to the museum. Emile Brugsch only cared for display; so from one bracelet he cut away the half that was of plaited gold wire, and he also threw away the arm and linen. A museum is a dangerous place….
Djer surrounded his tomb with numerous satellite burials of his retainers who went to the grave at the same time as him. In total there were 318 attendant graves, many marked with stele. Of 97 inscribed stele, 76 were female, 11 male, with 2 holding dwarfs; all were probably service staff. From his reign, stele with serekhs of rulers were set up near royal graves, probably on there eastern side.
From the Middle Kingdom onwards and the reign of Senwosret III Djer's tomb became labelled as the tomb of Osiris due to the increase in interest in the Osiris Cult, the Osiris Mysteries were traditionally begun when a statue of Osiris was carried on the shoulders of priests towards Djer's tomb.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Clayton, P.A (2001) Chronicles of the Pharaohs London: Thames & Hudson.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Dodson, A & Hilton, D. (2005) The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 9774249577
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Tyldesley, J. (2006) The Complete Queens of Egypt Cairo: American University Press.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Lehner, M. (2008) "The Complete Pyramids of Egypt" London: Thames & Hudson
- ↑ Schulz, R & Seidel, M. (2007) "Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs" H.F.Ullman
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Tyldesley, J. (2005) "Egypt: How a lost civilization was rediscovered" London: BBC Books
- ↑ Wilkinson, T, A, H. (2001) Early Dynastic Egypt London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26011-6.
- ↑ Watterson, B. (2003) Gods of Ancient Egypt Sparkford: Sutton Publishing
| Pharaoh of Egypt|
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