Wikia

Ancient Egypt Wiki

Thutmose I

Comments0
252pages on
this wiki
Thutmose I
Reign
1506BC - 1493BC
Praenomen
Aakheperkare
Great is the manifestation of the soul of Re
Nomen
Thutmose
Thoth is born
Horus
Kanekhet meri maat
Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat
Nebty
Kham neseret aa pehet
Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power
Golden Horus
Nefer Reneput Sankhibu
Good of Years,
Making Hearts to Live
Relatives
Semiseneb (mother)

Queen Ahmose (wife)
Mutnofret (wife)
Thutmose II (son)
Hatshepsut (daughter)
Amenmose (child)
Wadjmose (child)

Nefrubity (child)
Burial Place
KV38, later KV20
Monuments
Pylons IV and V
Two obelisks
Hypostyle hall at Karnak


Aakheperkare Thutmose I (alternatively Thutmosis or Tuthmose) was the third Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. He was the father of the Pharaohs Thutmose II and Hatshepsut, and was the first king to be buried in the Valley of the Kings (tombs KV20 and KV38). His reign is generally dated from 1506 to 1493 BCE.

FamilyEdit

Thutmose's father is unknown, but he was not closely related to the preceding Pharaoh. His mother's name, Senseneb, was recorded, and she is believed to have been a commoner.[1] Queen Ahmose, his great wife, was probably the daughter of Ahmose I and the sister of Amenhotep I[2] However, if she was, she was not married to him only slightly before Amenhotep I's death, merely to guarentee succession, for two reasons. First, Amenhotep's alabaster bark built at Karnak associates Amenhotep's name with Thutmose's name well before Amenhotep's death.[3] Second, Thutmose's firstborn son with Ahmose, Amenmose, was apparently born long before Thutmose's coronation. He can be seen on a stela from Thutmose's fourth regnal year hunting near Memphis, and he became the "great army-commander of his father" sometime before his death, which was no later than Amenhotep's death in his 12th regnal year.[4] Thutmose had another son, Wadjmose, and two daughters, Hatshepsut and Nefrubity, by Ahmose. Wadjmose died before his father, and Nefrubity probably did as well.[5] Thutmose had one son remaining by another wife, Mutnofret. This son succeeded him as Thutmose II, whom Thutmose I married to his fully royally born daughter, Hatshepsut.[6] It was later recorded that Thutmose willed the kingship to both Thutmose II and Hatshepsut, however this was certainly Hatshepsut's propaganda to solidify her claim when she usurped the throne.[7]

Dates and Length of ReignEdit

A heliacal rising of Sothis was recorded in the reign Thutmose's predecessor, Amenhotep I, which has been dated to 1517 BC, assuming the observation was made at either Heliopolis or Memphis.[8] The year of Amenhotep's death and Thutmose's subsequent coronation can be accordingly derived, and is dated to 1506 BC by most modern scholars. However, if the observation were made at Thebes, as a minority of scholars promote, Thutmose would have been coronated in 1526 BC[9] Manetho records that Thutmose I's reign lasted 12 Years and 9 Months--or 13 Years--as a certain Mephres in his Epitome.[1] This data is supported by 2 dated inscriptions from Years 8 and 9 of his reign bearing his cartouche found inscribed on a stone block in Karnak.[10] Accordingly, Thutmose is usually given a reign from 1506 BC to 1493 BC in the low chronology, but a minority of scholars would date him from 1526 BC to 1513 BC[11]

Military achievementsEdit

Upon Thutmose's coronation, Nubia rebelled against Egyptian rule. According to the tomb texts of Ahmose, son of Ebana, Thutmose traveled down the Nile and fought in the battle, personally killing the Nubian king.[12] Upon victory he had the Nubian king's body hung from the prow of his ship, before he returned to Thebes.[13] After that campaign, he had the canal at the first cataract built by Sesostris III dredged, which facilitated better travel upstream, and helped to better intigrate Nubia into the Egyptian empire.[14] In the second year of Thutmose's reign, he cut a stele at Tombos, which also notes that he built a fortress at Tombos, near the third cataract, thus permanently extending the Egyptian military presence, which had previously stopped at Buhen, at the second cataract.[15] which indicates that he already fought a campaign in Syria, so with his first regnal year dedicated to his first Nubian campaign, his Syrian campaign is placed in the beginning of his second regnal year.[16]

This second campaign was the farthest north any Egyptain had ever campaigned. Although it has not been found in modern times, he apparently set up a stele when he crossed the Euphrates River.[17] During this campaign, the Syrian princes switched alliegence to Thutmose in name only, however after he returned, they discontinued tribute and began fortifying against future incursions.[18] Thutmose celebrated his victories with an elephant hunt in the area of Niy, near Apamea in Syria,[19] and returned to Egypt with strange tales of the Euphrates, "that inverted water which flows upstream when it ought to be flowing downstream."[20] The Euphrates was the first major river which the Egyptians had ever encountered which flowed from the north, which was downstream on the nile, to the south, which was upstream on the nile. Thus the river became known in Egypt as simply, "inverted water."[21]

Thutmose had to face one more military threat, another rebellion by Nubia in his fourth year.[22] His influence accordingly expanded even farther south, as an inscription dated to his reign has been found as far south as Kurgus, south of the fourth cataract.[23] During his reign, he initiated a number of projects which effectively ended Nubian independence for the next 500 years. He enlarged a temple to Sesostris III and Khnum, opposite the Nile from Semna.[24] There are also records of specific religious rites which the viceroy of El-Kab was to have performed in the temples in Nubia in proxy for the king.[25] Most effective of all his acts, however, he appointed a man called Turi to the position of Viceroy of Kush, also known as the "Kings Son of Cush."[26] With a civilian representative of the king permanently established in nubia itself, Nubia did not dare to revolt nearly as often, and was easlily maintained by future kings.[27]

Building projectsEdit

An avid builder, Thutmose commissioned many construction projects during his rule, including the first undisputed tomb carved out at the Valley of the Kings.[28] Many of his projects were at the Temple of Karnak under the supervision of the architect Ineni.[29]. Previous to Thutmose, Karnak probably consisted only of a long road to a central platform, with a number of shrines for the solar bark along the side of the road.[30] Thutmose had the fifth pylon built along that road, along with a wall to run around the inner sanctuary. Outside of this, he built a fourth pylon and another enclosure wall.[31] Between pylons four and five, he had a hypostyle hall constructed, with columns made of cedar wood. Along the edge of this room he built colossal statues, each one alternating wearing the crown of Upper Egypt and the crown of Lower Egypt.[32] Finally, outside of the fourth pylon, he erected two obelisks, however one of them, which now has fallen, was not inscribed until Thutmose III inscribed it about 50 years later.[33] The cedar columns in Thutmose I's hypostyle hall were replaced with stone columns by Thutmose III, however at least the northernmost two were replace by Thutmose I himself.[34] Hatshepsut also erected two of her own obelisks inside of Thutmose I's hypostyle hall.[35] In addition to Karnak, Thumose I also built statues of the Ennead at abydos, buildigs at Armant, Ombos, el-Hiba, Memphis, and Edfu, as well as minor expansions to buildings in Nubia, at Semna, Buhen, Aniba, and Quban.[36] Ineni was commissioned to dig Thutmose's tomb, and presumably to build his mortuary temple.[37] His mortuary temple has not been found, quite possibly because it was incorporated into or demolished by the construction of Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri.[38] His tomb, however, has been identified as KV32, which is believed to be the first tomb dug in the Valley of the Kings. In it was found a yellow quartzite sarcophagus bearing the name of Thutmose I.[39] His body, however, may have been moved by Thutmose III into the tomb of Hatshepsut, KV20, which also contains a sarcophagus with the name of Thutmose I on it.[40]


Death & burialEdit

Thutmose I's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri Cache above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with those of other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the 21st dynasty pharaohs Pinedjem I, Pinedjem II, and Siamun.

The original coffin of Thutmose I was taken over and re-used by a later pharaoh of the 21st dynasty. Originally the mummy of Thutmose I was thought to be lost, but Egyptologist Gaston Maspero, largely on the strength of familial resemblance to the mummies of Thutmose II and Thutmose III, believed he had found his mummy in the otherwise unlabelled mummy #5283.[41] This identification has been supported by subsequent examinations, revealing that the embalming techniques used came from the appropriate period of time, almost certainly after that of Ahmose I and made during the course of the Eighteenth dynasty. [42]

Gaston Maspero described the mummy in the following manner:

The king was already advanced in age at the time of his death, being over fifty years old, to judge by the incisor teeth, which are worn and corroded by the impurities of which the Egyptian bread was full. The body, though small and emaciated, shows evidence of unusual muscular strength; the head is bald, the features are refined, and the mouth still bears an expression characteristic of shrewdness and cunning.[43]

His mummy can be viewed today in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 176 Oxford University Press, 1964
  2. Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 176 Oxford University Press, 1964
  3. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. pp. 203. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  4. Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 179 Oxford University Press, 1964
  5. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.36. University of Chicago, 1942
  6. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.36. University of Chicago, 1942
  7. Erman, Adolf. Life in Ancient Egypt. p.43. Macmilian and Company, London, 1894
  8. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.202. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  9. Helk, Wolfgang. Schwachstellen der Chronologie-Diskussion. pp.47-9. Göttinger Miszellen, Göttingen, 1983
  10. Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, Verlag Philipp von Zabern. (1997), p.120
  11. Grimal, Nicholas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.202. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  12. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.34. University of Chicago, 1942
  13. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.34. University of Chicago, 1942
  14. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 36. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  15. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 28. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  16. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.35. University of Chicago, 1942
  17. Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p. 289. The British Museum Press, 1995
  18. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.36. University of Chicago, 1942
  19. Gardiner, Alan Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 179 Oxford University Press, 1964
  20. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.36. University of Chicago, 1942
  21. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.36. University of Chicago, 1942
  22. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.35. University of Chicago, 1942
  23. Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p. 289. The British Museum Press, 1995
  24. Erman, Adolf. Life in Ancient Egypt. p.503. Macmilian and Company, London, 1894
  25. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 25. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  26. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 27. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  27. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.35. University of Chicago, 1942
  28. Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p. 289. The British Museum Press, 1995
  29. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 41. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  30. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. pp. 300. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  31. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. pp. 300. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  32. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. pp. 300. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  33. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 41. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  34. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 41. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  35. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. pp. 300. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  36. Thutmosis I Accessed August 2, 2006
  37. Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 179 Oxford University Press, 1964
  38. Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 170 Oxford University Press, 1964
  39. Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 176 Oxford University Press, 1964
  40. Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p. 289. The British Museum Press, 1995
  41. Maspero, Gaston. History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Volume 4 (of 12), Project Gutenberg EBook, Release Date: December 16, 2005. EBook #17324. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/7/3/2/17324/17324-h/v4c.htm#image-0047
  42. Smith, G Elliot. The Royal Mummies, p.25-28. Duckworth, 2000 (reprint).
  43. Maspero, Gaston. History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Volume 4 (of 12), Project Gutenberg EBook, Release Date: December 16, 2005. EBook #17324. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/7/3/2/17324/17324-h/v4c.htm#image-0047

Image Reference: Author: Jimmy Dunn Source: Feature Article: URL: http://touregypt.net/featurestories/tuthmosis1.htm Date: 30,5,06

Preceded by:
Amenhotep I
Pharaoh of Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Thutmose II

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki