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Preceded by:
Thutmose I
[[Pharaoh|Pharaoh of Egypt]]
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Hatshepsut
Thutmose II
style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Reign colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" | 1493 BC to 1479 BC
(though disputed)
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style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Praenomen colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" |
M23L2
<
N5
O29
L1
n
>

Aakheperenre
Great is the manefestation of Re
- style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Nomen colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" |
G39N5
<
G26F31S29
>

Thutmose
Thoth is born
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style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Horus name colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" |
G5
E1
D40
wsrsF9
F9
Srxtail2
Ka Nekhet User Pekhet
The strong bull, the great one of power
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style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Nebty name colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" |
G16
R8M23iit
Y1
Neter Nesyt
Divine of kingship
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style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Golden Horus colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" |
G8
G5
S42L1G43Y1
Z2
Sekhem Kheperu
Powerful of Forms
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style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Consort(s) colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" | Hatshepsut, Aset -
style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Issues colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" | Thutmose III, Neferure, Meritre -
style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Father colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" | Thutmose I -
style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Mother colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" | Mutnofret -
style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Died colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" | 1479 BC -
style="vertical-align: top; text-align: right;" | Burial colspan="3" style="text-align: left;" | KV42 (now considered unlikely) -

Aakheperenre Thutmose II (d. 1479 BC; sometimes spelled Thutmosis) was the fourth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. He was probably dominated by his wife, Hatshepsut, and did very little in his reign, but did carry out at least two minor campaigns. His reign has generally been dated from 1493 to 1479 BC. Thutmose II's body was found in the Deir el-Bahri Cache above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut and can be viewed today in the Egyptian Museum.

Family

Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a minor wife, Mutnofret. He was, therefore, a lesser son of Thutmose I who chose to marry his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, to secure his kingship. While he successfully put down rebellions in Nubia and the Levant and defeated a group of nomadic Bedouins, these campaign were specifically carried out by the king's Generals, and not by Thutmose II himself. This is often interpreted as evidence that Thutmose II was still a minor at his accession. Thutmose II fathered with Hatshepsut, Neferure and Meritre, but also managed to father a male heir, the famous Thutmose III, by a lesser wife named Isis before his death.

Some archaeologists believe that Hatshepsut was the real power behind the throne during Thutmose II’s rule because of the similar domestic and foreign policies which were later pursued under her reign and because of her claim that she was her father’s intended heir. She later had herself crowned Pharaoh after his death early during Thutmose III's reign.

Dates and Length of Reign

Manetho's Epitome calls Thutmose "Chebron," (a reference to his prenomen, Aakheperenre) and gives him a reign of 13 Years, but this figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some Egyptologists prefer to shorten his reign by a full decade to only 3 Years because his Highest Year Date is only a Year 1 stela.[citation needed] The reign length of Thutmose II has been a controversial and much debated subject among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign, but a long reign is usually preferred by scholars. As for the date of his reign, it is still possible to estimate when his reign would have begun by means of a Heliacal Rise of sothis in Amenhotep I's reign, which would give him a reign from 1493 BC to 1479 BC,[1] although uncertanty about how to interpret the rise also permits a date from 1513 BC to 1499 BC,[2] and uncertanty about how long Thutmose I ruled could also potentially place his reign several years earlier still. Nonetheless, scholars generally assign him a reign from 1493 or 1492 to 1479.[3][4]

Argument for a Short Reign

Ineni, who was already aged by the beginning of his reign, lived through his entire reign into that of Hatshepsut.[5] In addition, he is poorly attested in the monumental record and in the contemporary tomb autobiographies of New Kingdom officials. A clear count of monuments from his rule, which is the principal tool for estimating a king's reign when dated documents are not avalable, is nearly impossible, because Hatshepsut usurped most of his monuments, and in turn Thutmose III reinscribed Thutmose II's name indiscriminately over other monuments.[6] In addition, almost all his monuments were usurped by latter builder pharaohs, especially Amenhotep III[citation needed] In 1987, Luc Gabolde published an important study [7] which statistically compared the number of surviving Scarabs found under Thutmose I, Thutmose II and Hatshepsut. While monuments can be usurped, scarabs are so small and comparatively insignificant changing their names would be impractical and without profit, so they provide better insight to this period. Hatshepsut's reign length is known to be 21 Years and 9 Months. Gabolde highlighted – in his analysis – the relatively small number of surviving scarabs known for Thutmose II compared to Tuthmose I and Hatshepsut, and estimated Thutmose I and II's reigns to be approximately 11 and 3 full years respectively. Argument for a Long Reign

Thutmose's reign is still traditionally given 13 or 14 years. Although Ineni's testemony can be interpreted to say that Thutmose reigned only a short time, it also calls Thutmose a "hawk in the nest," indicating that he was a child when he assumed the throne,[8] and he did leave behind a number of children, which indicates that he lived at least long enough to start a family. The German Egyptologist, J. Von Beckerath, uses this line of argument to support the case of a 13 Year reign for Thutmose II [9]. Alan Gardiner had noted that at one point, a monument had been identified which was dated to Thutmose's 18th year, although where it came from can not now be identified,[10] and this inscription has also been attributed to Hatshepsut, who with certainty did have an 18th year. Finally, Von Beckerath also notes the curious fact that Hatshepsut celebrated her Sed Jubilee in her Year 16 which he believes would have occurred 30 Years after the death of Thutmose I, her father, who was the sole source of her claim to power. This would ​create a gap of 13-14 Years where Tuthmose II's reign would fit in.[11].

Campaigns

Thutmose II was not nearly as much of a military pharaoh as either his father was or his son would be, but he did campaign on two occasions.

Upon Thutmose's coronation, Kush rebelled, as it had the habit of doing upon the transition of Egyptian kingship. The Nubian state had been completely subjugated by Thutmose I,[12] but some rebels from Khenthennofer rose up, and the Egyptian colonists retreated into a fortress built by Thutmose I.[13] On account of his youth at the time, Thutmose II sent an army into Nubia rather than leading it himself, but he seems to have easily crushed this revolt.[14]

Thutmose also seems to have fought against the Shasu Bedouin in the Sinai, in a campaign mentioned by Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet.[15] Although this campaign has been called a minor raid, there is a fragment which was recorded by KurtSethe which records a campaign in upper Retenu, or Syria, which appears to have reached as far as a place called Niy where Thutmose I hunted Elephants after returning from crossing the Euphrates.[16] This quite possibly indicates that the raid against the Shasu was only fought en route to Syria.[17]

Mummy

File:ThutmoseII-mummy-head-drawing.png

Thutmose II's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with those of other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders including Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the 21st dynasty pharaohs Psusennes I, Psusennes II, and Siamun.

The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on July 1, 1886. There is a strong familial resemblance to the mummy of Thutmoze I, his likely father, as the mummy face and shape of the head are very similar. The body of Thutmose II suffered greatly at the hands of ancient tomb robbers, with his left arm broken off at the shoulder-joint, the forearm separated at the elbow joint, and his right arm chopped off below the elbow. His anterior abdominal wall and much of his chest had been hacked at, possibly by an axe. In addition, his right leg had been severed from his body.[18] All of these injuries were sustained post-mortem, though the body also showed signs that Thutmose II did not have an easy life, as the following quote by Gaston Maspero attests:

He had scarcely reached the age of thirty when he fell a victim to a disease of which the process of embalming could not remove the traces. The skin is scabrous in patches, and covered with scars, while the upper part of the skull is bald; the body is thin and somewhat shrunken, and appears to have lacked vigour and muscular power.[19]

References

  1. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.204. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  2. Helk, Wolfgang. Schwachstellen der Chronologie-Diskussion. pp.47-9. Göttinger Miszellen, Göttingen, 1983
  3. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.204. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  4. Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p. 289. The British Museum Press, 1995
  5. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 47. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  6. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. pp. 216. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  7. Gabolde, Luc (1987). "La Chronologie du règne de Thoutmosis II, ses conséquences sur la datation des momies royales et leurs répercutions sur l'histoire du développement de la Vallée des Rois". SAK 14: 61–87.
  8. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 47. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  9. J. Von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, MÄS 46 (Philip von Zabern, Mainz: 1997)
  10. Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 180 Oxford University Press, 1964
  11. J. Von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, MÄS 46 (Philip von Zabern, Mainz: 1997)
  12. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.35. University of Chicago, 1942
  13. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 49. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  14. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 50. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  15. Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 180 Oxford University Press, 1964
  16. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 51. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  17. ibid
  18. Smith, G Elliot. The Royal Mummies, p.28-29. Duckworth, 2000 (reprint).
  19. Maspero, Gaston. History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Volume 4 (of 12), Project Gutenberg EBook, Release Date: December 16, 2005. EBook #17324. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/7/3/2/17324/17324-h/v4c.htm

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